“A movement in 20th-century American literary criticism […]. The New Critics were united in their emphasis on dealing with the text directly; they insisted that a work of art be considered as an autonomous whole, without regard to biographical, cultural, or social speculations.” (Source: Benet’s, 726)
New Criticism arose from the writings of T.S. Eliot and Ezra Pound. Chief among the New Critics were John Crowe Ransom, whose 1941 book The New Criticism gave the movement its name; Allen Tate, R. Blackmur, Cleanth Brooks, Robert Penn Warren, Kenneth Burke, and Yvor Winters.